Identification and expression analyses of poly [I:C]-stimulated genes in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)
Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) have proven to be an excellent model with which to study immune responses of lower vertebrates. Identification of anti-viral antibodies and cytotoxic cells, as well as both type I and II interferon (IFN), demonstrates that catfish likely mount a vigorous anti-viral immune response. In this report, we focus on other elements of the anti-viral response, and identify more than two dozen genes that are induced following treatment of catfish cells with poly [I:C]. We showed that poly [I:C] induced type I interferon within 2 h of treatment, and that characteristic interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) appeared 6-12 h after exposure. Among the ISGs detected by RT-PCR assay were homologs of ISG15, Mx1, IFN regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1), inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1 (IAP-1) and the chemokine CXCL10. Microarray analyses showed that 13 and 24 cellular genes, respectively, were upregulated in poly [I:C]-treated B cell and fibroblast cultures. Although many of these genes were novel and did not fit the profile of mammalian ISGs, there were several (ISG-15, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2G1, integrin-linked kinase, and clathrin-associated protein 47) that were identified as ISGs in mammalian systems. Taken together, these results suggest that dsRNA, either directly or through the prior induction of IFN, upregulates catfish gene products that function individually and/or collectively to inhibit virus replication. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.