Silver(I) Antimicrobial Cotton Nonwovens and Printcloth
Polymers and High Performance Materials
In this paper we discuss the preparation and comparative evaluation of silver (I) [Ag(I)] nonwoven and woven antimicrobial barrier fabrics generated from commercial calcium-sodium alginates and laboratory prepared sodium carboxymethyl (CM) cotton nonwovens and CM-cotton printcloth for potential use as wound dressings. Degrees of CM substitution (DS) in cotton nonwoven and printcloth samples by titrimetry were 0.38 and 0.10, respectively. Coordination of Ag(I) with carboxylates on fabrics was effected by ion exchange and nitrates were removed by washing to mitigate nitrate ion toxicity issues. Durability of silver coordinated fabrics was tested by soaking them in deionized water with slight agitation at 50 degrees C. Ag(I) alginates and nonwoven Ag(I)-CM-cottons lost structural integrity in water. Ag-CM-cotton printcloth samples retained structural integrity even after four soak-and-dry cycles, were smooth to the touch when dry, and were smoother when moistened. They could be easily peeled from wound surfaces without inducing trauma. Solid-state carbon-13 (C-13) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry was used to observe changes in carbonyl resonances in Ag(I) alginates and Ag(I)-CM-printcloth, and the chemical shift positions of carbonyl resonances of uncoordinated and Ag(I) coordinated fabrics did not change. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used following fabric digestion to determine the total Ag(I) ion content in fabrics. Ag(I) alginates were found to hold about 10-50 mg Ag(I) per gram fabric; and Ag(I) cotton woven and nonwoven fabrics held about 5-10 mg Ag(I) ions per gram fabric. Kinetic release of Ag(I) after soaking once in physiological saline was studied with ICP-MS to estimate the availability of Ag(I) upon a single exchange with Na(I) ions on wound surfaces. Alginates released between similar to 13 and 28% of coordinated Ag(I), and CM-cotton nonwovens and CM-cotton printcloth released similar to 14 and 3% of coordinated Ag(I) ions, respectively. Finally, Ag(I) alginates and Ag-CM-cotton printcloth samples were evaluated against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Klebsiella pneumoniae. Ag(I) alginates suppressed 99.95% of bacterial growth in vitro. Even after four soak-and-dry cycles in deionized water Ag(I)-CM-cotton printcloth suppressed 99.99% of bacterial growth in vitro. Published in 2007 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Polymers For Advanced Technologies
(2007). Silver(I) Antimicrobial Cotton Nonwovens and Printcloth. Polymers For Advanced Technologies, 18(8), 620-628.
Available at: http://aquila.usm.edu/fac_pubs/1957