Discrepancies Between Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem: Implications For Narcissism and Self-Esteem Instability
There appear to be two forms of high self-esteem: secure high self-esteem (which is often linked with psychological health) and fragile high self-esteem (which is generally associated with poor psychological adjustment and impaired interpersonal relationships). Discrepant high self-esteem is a form of fragile self-esteem characterized by high explicit self-esteem and low implicit self-esteem. The present study examined whether discrepant high self-esteem was associated with narcissism and self-esteem instability in an undergraduate sample. Using multiple measures of implicit self-esteem, two basic findings emerged from the present study. First, participants with discrepant high self-esteem possessed the highest levels of narcissism. Second, participants with high explicit self-esteem and high implicit self-esteem displayed the most stable self-esteem. Findings are discussed in terms of secure and fragile high self-esteem.
Journal of Personality
(2006). Discrepancies Between Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem: Implications For Narcissism and Self-Esteem Instability. Journal of Personality, 74(1), 119-143.
Available at: http://aquila.usm.edu/fac_pubs/2498