Snoring, Sleep Quality, and Sleepiness Across Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes
Study Objectives: To characterize the relationship between pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes, chronic snoring, and indexes of sleep quality and daytime sleepiness. Design: A cross-sectional design with planned comparisons of ADHD (all subtypes) versus general community controls; ADHD Predominantly Inattentive Type (ADHD-I) versus a group with both ADHD Predominantly Hyperactive/Impulsive Type (ADHD-HI) and ADHD Combined Type (ADHD-C); and ADHD-HI versus ADHD-C. Setting: Subjects recruited from a pediatric clinic, a university psycholgy clinic, and the general community. Participants: Caretakers of 74 children (45 with ADHD, 29 community controls; 53 boys, 21 girls; mean age, 9.6 years; age range, 6 to 16 years). Thirty-two (71.1%) of the children with ADHD were taking stimulant medication and 7 (15.5%) were taking hypnotic medication. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Caretakers completed the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) and the Children's Sleep-Wake Scale (CSWS). Only the ADHD-HI diagnosis was associated with an increased likelihood of chronic snoring. Sleep quality was poorer among children with ADHD than controls; however, there were no differences in sleep quality across ADHD subtypes. Sleepiness was greater in children with ADHD, especially the ADHD-I Type. Conclusions: Chronic snoring may be a correlated feature in only a subgroup of the ADHD population, possibly those more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD-HI. Although children with ADHD have poorer sleep quality and greater daytime sleepiness, these 2 features of ADHD are not closely related.
LeBourgeois, M. K.,
(2004). Snoring, Sleep Quality, and Sleepiness Across Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes. Sleep, 27(3), 520-525.
Available at: http://aquila.usm.edu/fac_pubs/3284