Evaluation of N-aromatic maleimides as free radical photoinitiators: A photophysical and photopolymerization characterization
Polymers and High Performance Materials
Photopolymerizable compositions were prepared using acrylate monomers in combination with various N-aromatic maleimides. N-aromatic maleimides were segregated into two groups: those that could adopt a planar conformation and those that could not adopt a planar conformation. The maleimides were characterized using single-crystal X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, laser flash photolysis spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, and photodifferential scanning calorimetry. Planar N-aromatic maleimides were found to have a low relative excited-state triplet yield, showing significant shift of the primary maleimide UV absorption band with changes in solvent polarity, and did not initiate free radial polymerization upon direct UV excitation. Twisted N-aromatic maleimides have a higher relative triplet yield, show negligible shift of the primary maleimide UV absorption band, with solvent polarity, and initiate free radical polymerization upon direct excitation. Addition of benzophenone was found to dramatically increase the initiation efficiency of both planar and twisted N-aromatic maleimides to levels approaching that of conventional cleavage photoinitiators.
JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B
(2001). Evaluation of N-aromatic maleimides as free radical photoinitiators: A photophysical and photopolymerization characterization. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B, 105(14), 2707-2717.
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