Effects of cross anisotropy on three-dimensional behavior of sand. I: Stress-strain behavior and shear banding
The significance of material cross anisotropy in sands is underscored and experimentally evaluated in a series of true triaxial tests on Santa Monica beach sand in a cubical device. Failure patterns, initiation and development of shear banding, and complete stress-strain behavior are described for the entire range of the Lode angle under general three-dimensional loading conditions. Localized failure was found to govern the ultimate resistance of the sand for intermediate values of parameter b = (sigma(2)-sigma(3))/(sigma(1)-sigma(3)) in each of the three sectors of the octahedral plane. Variations of the friction angle are fully described and show its significant dependence on the inherent cross-anisotropic material structure.
JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MECHANICS-ASCE
(2003). Effects of cross anisotropy on three-dimensional behavior of sand. I: Stress-strain behavior and shear banding. JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MECHANICS-ASCE, 129(2), 160-166.
Available at: http://aquila.usm.edu/fac_pubs/4468