Viruses, Biosecurity and Specific Pathogen-Free Stocks in Shrimp Aquaculture
The greatest threat to the future of world shrimp aquaculture is disease, in particular the virulent untreatable viruses, infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), taura syndrome virus (TSV), yellow head virus (YHV), and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). To overcome these hazards, the industry of the future must be based on: (i) specific pathogen-free and genetically improved shrimp stocks; (ii) biosecure systems including enclosed, reduced water-exchange/increased water-reuse culture systems; (iii) biosecure management practices; and (iv) co-operative industry-wide disease control strategies. Specific pathogen-free shrimp are those that are known to be free of specified pathogens and such stocks will ensure that seed shrimp are not the conduit for introduction of pathogens and that if pathogens are encountered the stocks will not be severely affected. Commercially acceptable biosecure culture systems that are under cover and use recirculated sea water will need to be developed for shrimp production. Adherence to operating protocols that incorporate strict biosecurity practices, including restricted access and disinfection strategies, will need to become standard. Go-operative efforts will include: early warning surveillance; co-ordination of harvest and water exchange schedules of contaminated ponds; processor co-operation to ensure that processing wastes are not threats; quick response to outbreaks.
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
(1997). Viruses, Biosecurity and Specific Pathogen-Free Stocks in Shrimp Aquaculture. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 13(4), 405-413.
Available at: http://aquila.usm.edu/fac_pubs/5368