The glucose signaling network in yeast
Background: Most cells possess a sophisticated mechanism for sensing glucose and responding to it appropriately. Glucose sensing and signaling in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae represent an important paradigm for understanding how extracellular signals lead to changes in the gene expression program in eukaiyotes. Scope of review: This review focuses on the yeast glucose sensing and signaling pathways that operate in a highly regulated and cooperative manner to bring about glucose-induction of HXT gene expression. Major conclusions: The yeast cells possess a family of glucose transporters (HXTs), with different kinetic properties. They employ three major glucose signaling pathways-Rgt2/Snf3, AMPK, and cAMP-PICA to express only those transporters best suited for the amounts of glucose available. We discuss the current understanding of how these pathways are integrated into a regulatory network to ensure efficient uptake and utilization of glucose. General significance: Elucidating the role of multiple glucose signals and pathways involved in glucose uptake and metabolism in yeast may reveal the molecular basis of glucose homeostasis in humans, especially under pathological conditions, such as hyperglycemia in diabetics and the elevated rate of glycolysis observed in many solid tumors. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.