Title

Lead and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms: A meta-analysis

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

4-1-2013

Department

Psychology

Abstract

This meta-analysis examined the association between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms and lead exposure in children and adolescents. Thirty-three studies published between 1972 and 2010 involving 10,232 children and adolescents were included. There was a small to medium association between inattention symptoms and lead exposure (r=.16, k = 27, p<.001) and a similar association between hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms and lead exposure (r=.13, k=23, p<.001). There was significant heterogeneity among the effect sizes for both inattention symptoms and for hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms, with studies using hair analysis to assess lead burden yielding substantially larger effect sizes than those using other methods. Excluding the hair analysis studies, the average rs were .14 for inattention (k=23, p<.001) and .12 for hyperactivity/impulsivity (k=21, p<.001). Overall, the relation between lead exposure and ADHD symptoms was similar in magnitude to the relation between lead exposure and decreased IQ and between lead exposure and conduct problems. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Publication Title

CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW

Volume

33

Issue

3

First Page

417

Last Page

425