With the Earth’s human population estimated to exceed 10 billion by 2050, the now globalised community has some serious discussions involving the upcoming, necessary transition to sustainable habitation and preventative healthcare. This paper examines the social and economic structures preventing this transition at individual, national and multinational levels and their responsibilities to public health. Greater responsibility for ones individual health and consumption is essential and should be supported and encouraged by national governance that in turn has a responsibility to provide the environment in which healthy sustainable lifestyles are achievable and affordable. Multi-national corporations must also accept their responsibilities to public health and cease profiting from environmental destruction, inequity and suffering. There are many levels at which preventative health is prevented from being implemented, all of which must be acknowledged honestly and tackled simultaneously for a healthy sustainable future.