Title

Toward a Conceptualization of Contextual Performance Using a Systems Modality and Multisource Comparisons

Date of Award

1996

Degree Type

Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Department

Psychology

First Advisor

Ernest B. Gurman

Advisor Department

Psychology

Abstract

Borman and Motowidlo (1993) have initiated a line of research that partitions job performance into two parts: (a) behaviors that either execute an organization's technical processes or maintain and service an organization's technical requirements (task performance); and (b) behaviors that contribute to the broader organizational, social, and psychological environment in which technical activities are executed (contextual performance). Based on data that were obtained from bank tellers and their supervisors, this study examined the merit of the distinction between task and contextual performance using self-, peer-, and supervisory ratings. Specifically, it was predicted that these two dimensions of performance would contribute independently to an individual's overall contribution to an organization. Additionally, it was predicted that intrapersonal contextual activities and interpersonal contextual activities would contribute independently to supervisory and peer performance evaluations. Lastly, individual motivation behind contextual performance was investigated using two separate analyses. First, it was predicted that individual motivation would have a moderator effect on the relationship between contextual and overall performance. Second, scores from the Bass Orientation Inventory's Self-Orientation and Interaction-Orientation subscales were expected to provide unique prediction of measures of intrapersonal and interpersonal contextual performance. Seventy-four bank tellers participated in this study. Each participant provided self-ratings of overall, task, and contextual performance, three peer ratings of overall, task, and contextual performance, and supervisory ratings of overall, task, and contextual performance. Results indicated that, contrary to expectations, peers and supervisors did not distinguish between task performance and contextual performance. However, task performance and contextual performance did contribute independently to self-ratings of overall organizational contribution. Multitrait-multimethod analysis provided some evidence as to the construct validity of intrapersonal contextual performance and of interpersonal contextual performance. Peer ratings of interpersonal contextual performance provided unique prediction of peer ratings of overall performance, beyond that which was associated with peer evaluations of intrapersonal contextual performance. Findings did not support a moderator effect of individual motivation on the relationship between contextual and overall performance. Finally, BOI scores did not provide unique prediction of intrapersonal or interpersonal contextual performance.