The effects of sequential movement activities on first-grade students' solo singing abilities
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of sequential movement activities on solo singing responses of young children. The problem of this study was to compare solo singing responses among first-grade children who (a) participated in movement activities while singing, (b) did not participate in movement activities while singing, and (c) did not participate in any movement or music activities. An ancillary problem was to compare developmental tonal aptitude scores for subjects among three groups prior to and after the study. Two treatment groups received music instruction 30 minutes once a week for 10 weeks. Group A (n = 27) received singing instruction with movement activities, Group B (n = 26) received the same singing instruction without any movement activities, and the control group (Group C, n = 25) received no singing or movement instruction. Prior to and at the conclusion of the treatment, the researcher administered the tonal subtest of Gordon's Primary Measures of Music Audiation (PMMA-T) and audio-cassette recorded each subject's individual solo sin0ging performance of the criterion song. Three independent evaluators subsequently rated each subject's use of singing voice as measured by Rutkowski's Singing Voice Development Measure (SVDM) and sense of tonality as measured by the researcher's Measure of Sense of Tonality (MST). The results of Analyses of Covariance (ANCOVA) revealed that the adjusted means of ratings on both SVDM and MST for Group A were slightly higher than Group B, and the adjusted means for ratings on both SVDM and MST for both Groups A and B were higher than the control group (Group U There were no statistically significant differences in PMMA-T posttest scores among the three groups. These results suggest that (a) music instruction with sequential Laban-based movement activities are of benefit for developing children's singing voices and sense of tonality, (b) movement activities presented in conjunction with music activities are of benefit when presented sequentially, (c) ten weeks of music instruction for only 30 minutes per week are not sufficient to make a statistically significant increase on PMMA-T scores, and (d) the obvious lack of improvement in children's development of singing voices and sense of tonality for children in the control group emphasizes the need for consistent and high-quality singing experiences for first-grade children.