Students' and teachers' perceptions of the relationship among the utilization of school-based (K--12) educational technology, student achievement and improved student learning
This study reflects the exploration of a link between educational technology utilization and student achievement and between educational technology utilization and improved student learning based on teachers' and 12th -grade students' perceptions. The participants were 12th -grade students and teachers from three high schools of the same Georgia school district which exhibit similar characteristics of SAT scores and free or reduced lunch participation levels. The findings of the study supported that link. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was used to examine the relationship between linear combinations of students' perceived educational technology utilization variables and student achievement variables. In this model educational technology utilization was measured by the five uncorrelated constructs of cooperative learning, constructivism, technology related professional development, technology integration, and the use of calculators. Student achievement (the dependent linear combination) was measured by Georgia High School Graduation Test scores in math and English language arts and PSAT verbal and math scores. A squared canonical correlation (.449) was found, indicating that educational technology utilization as perceived by 12 th -grade students was a strong predictor of the linear combination of student achievement. Results from the CCA also indicated statistical significance (for the full model of canonical functions 1 through 4) for the relationship between the two sets of variables by using the Wilks' lambda criterion. Multiple regression analysis (MRA) was utilized in the second model to examine the relationship between educational technology utilization measured by the five independent variables (stated in CCA) and improved student learning based on 12th -grade students' perceptions. A large effect size (adjusted R square = .556) was observed for the full model, indicating strong prediction of improved student learning by the combined influence of the five independent constructs. The full model also reported a statistically significant ( F (5, 405) = 103.73, p = .00). MRA was also used in a third model to examine the relationship between teachers' perceptions of educational technology utilization and improved student learning. A large effect size (adjusted R square = .654) was obtained for the full model, indicating strong prediction of improved students learning by the combined effect of the five independent constructs. The full model was statistically significant ( F (5, 155) = 61.57, p = .00). Based on these findings, it was concluded that there seems to be a positive relationship between educational technology utilization and student achievement and also a positive relationship between educational technology utilization and improved student learning based on 12 th -grade students and teachers' perceptions.