The relationship between middle school teachers' perceptions of principals' transformational leadership practices, teachers' sense of efficacy and student achievement
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between middle school teachers' perceptions of their principal's transformational school leadership practices, teacher efficacy and student achievement. The study also investigated which transformational school leadership dimensions were predictors for teachers' sense of efficacy factors and student achievement as measured by math and reading/English language arts CRCT scores. Analyses were also conducted to determine which teacher sense of efficacy factors were predictors for student achievement as measured by math and reading/English language arts CRCT scores. Data from 256 teacher surveys were collected from 17 middle schools located in a northwestern suburban school district in a southeastern state. Descriptive and statistical analysis indicated that teachers perceived high performance expectations as the most important transformational leadership dimension. A Pearson's correlation analysis was used to examine the relationship between the six transformational leadership dimensions and each of the three teacher sense of efficacy factors. All correlations indicated a statistical significance, but reported weak relationships between the variables. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to address the three research questions and to test the null hypotheses. The results of the regression models reported correlations between the predictor variables and the outcome variables. Individualized support emerged as the best predictor for efficacy for classroom management. Vision emerged as the best predictor for the math CRCT scores and vision and group goals emerged as the best predictor for the reading/English language arts CRCT scores. Efficacy for classroom management emerged as the best predictor for math and reading/English language arts CRCT scores.