Table 1. Characteristics of Storm Damage and Broken Tops for Thinned and Unthinned Plots, With and Without Elevated [CO2] and Fertilizationa
Ambient [CO2] Elevated [CO2], Control
Control Thinned, Control, n = 14
Control, n = 8 Fertilized, n = 5 Control, n = 4 Fertilized, n = 1
Percent trees damaged 32 (7) 25 (6) 42 (6) 17 (5) 33
Average length of broken tops, cm 318 (20) [b] 273 (30) [c] 658 (77) [d] 310 (38)[b] 169 [c]
Average diameter of broken tops, mm 56 (3) [b] 56 (5) [b] 105 (10) [d] 50 (5) [c] 33 [c]
Average biomass of broken tops, kg C 1.9 (0.2) [b] 2.2 (0.6) [b] 13.9 (2.8) [d] 1.3 (0.3) [c] 0.3 [c]
Storm litterfall, g C m-2 205.9 (47) [b] 208 (62) [b] 436 (95) [d] 83 (31) [c] 70 [c]
Storm-induced leaf area reduction, m2 m-2 0.33 (0.1) [b] 0.43 (0.1) [b] 0.39 (0.07) [b,c] 0.21 (0.1) [c] 0.22 [c]
Percent leaf area reduced by storm, m2 m-2 12 (2) [b] 14 (2) [b] 23 (5) [d] 7 (2) [c] 7 [c]
aStandard error is given in parentheses. Letters in brackets indicate statistical differences at P < 0.1. Letters in brackets are not included for variables in which no significant treatment differences occurred.