Date of Award

Spring 5-2017

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



Committee Chair

Janie Butts

Committee Chair Department


Committee Member 2

Bonnie Harbaugh

Committee Member 2 Department


Committee Member 3

Karen Lundy

Committee Member 3 Department


Committee Member 4

Patsy Anderson

Committee Member 4 Department


Committee Member 5

Joanna Fairley

Committee Member 6

Kyna Shelley

Committee Member 6 Department

Educational Research and Administration


The purpose of this cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study was to examine ED staff nurses’ opinions of their ED nurse managers’ full range of leadership characteristics , the degree to which the characteristics correlate with specific outcomes of leadership behavior, and how the results of the measure and subscale compare to other nursing groups in literature. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire 5X Rater Form (MLQ 5X Rater Form) was used to measure ED staff nurses’ opinions of their ED nurse managers, along with an ED Staff Nurse Demographics Questionnaire to gather information about the characteristics of the population. The population for this study was ED staff nurses who work within hospitals and academic health centers across the United States. The findings indicated that the predominant leadership style was the transformational leadership style followed by transactional, and the least effective was passive/avoidant. The primary findings also revealed that transformational and transactional leadership styles positively related to employee willingness to exert extra effort, their satisfaction with their leader, and perceived effectiveness of the leader. Transactional leadership however had a weak positive correlation. Passive avoidant leadership styles indicated a negative correlation to the outcomes of leadership.