Date of Award

Summer 8-2013

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



Committee Chair

Brad Dufrene

Committee Chair Department


Committee Member 2

Daniel Tingstrom

Committee Member 2 Department


Committee Member 3

Joe Olmi

Committee Member 3 Department


Committee Member 4

Hollie Filce

Committee Member 4 Department

Curriculum, Instruction, and Special Education


Though preliminary research indicates Check-In/Check-Out (CICO) is an effective intervention for improving problematic behavior in a variety of populations, the literature is limited in several ways. Several studies have relied on indirect measures of behavior, such as office discipline referrals (ODRs) and teacher ratings, to determine the effectiveness of CICO. However, indirect measures are not always reliable indicators of student behavior change, whereas direct observation is known to be an accurate tool for behavioral measurement. Therefore, the current study evaluated the effects of CICO on levels of problem behavior and academic engagement for a group of four elementary school students as measured by direct observation. Following successful implementation of CICO, a self-monitoring procedure was used to fade teacher feedback. Results indicated CICO is effective in decreasing problem behavior and increasing academic engagement. Moreover, self-monitoring was found to effectively maintain low levels of problem behavior across participants. A Spearman’s rank correlation was used to analyze convergence between teacher ratings and direct observation data. A strong correlation between teacher ratings and direct observation was found, indicating teacher ratings may be a reliable indicator of student academic engagement.

Masters thesis: