Date of Award

Spring 2019

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Center for Science and Math Education

Committee Chair

Sherry Herron

Committee Chair School

Center for Science and Math Education

Committee Member 2

Kyna Shelley

Committee Member 2 School


Committee Member 3

Richard Mohn

Committee Member 3 School


Committee Member 4

Chet F. Rakocinski

Committee Member 4 School

Ocean Science and Engineering

Committee Member 5

Richard W. Heard

Committee Member 5 School

Ocean Science and Engineering


Technological advancements have enabled educators to bring excitement in student success with instantaneous feedback utilizing classroom response systems (CRS). A quantitative, quasi-experimental research design was used in this dissertation research to build a comprehensive understanding of the impact of instantaneous feedback with student knowledge and student self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to illuminate the benefits of instantaneous feedback and student self-efficacy with incorporation of CRS in a secondary science course. Statistical analyses were conducted with quantitative formative scores, summative test scores, and self-efficacy questionnaire results prior to the incorporation of CRS, and perceived self-efficacy questionnaire results after experience with CRS.