Date of Award

Spring 2019

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



Committee Chair

Richard Mohn

Committee Chair School


Committee Member 2

David E. Lee

Committee Member 2 School


Committee Member 3

Thomas Lipscomb

Committee Member 3 School


Committee Member 4

Thomas O'Brien

Committee Member 4 School



Technology has changed pedagogical methods in higher education. Educators are using technology more and integrating more active learning techniques. One pedagogical method, the flipped classroom, is suitable for integrating technology and active learning techniques. The pedagogical efficacy of the flipped classroom has not been determined despite being a potential solution for technology savvy millennial students. This mixed method study assessed critical thinking, metacognition, and motivation in higher education flipped classrooms in the United States. Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS) members teaching traditional and flipped format science courses were purposefully selected to participate in the study. A sample of 14 HAPS educators recruited 426 students enrolled in their science courses to complete the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), a five-point Likert scale instrument used to measure critical thinking, metacognition, and motivation. The study was a pre-test/post-test non-equivalent control group design with semi-structured interviews for flipped classroom educators. The MSLQ was administered at the beginning and end of the fall semester (16 weeks) or the summer semester (8 weeks). A multivariate analysis of variance was used to estimate relationships between classroom format (flipped or traditional) and outcome variables (critical thinking, metacognition and motivation). The results were not statistically significant, meaning the flipped classroom was not more effective than the traditional classroom format for the outcome variables. The semi-structured interviews with flipped classroom instructors addressed the limitations and challenges of implementing a flipped classroom instructional model (FCIM). The most common limitations and challenges were preparation, in-class activities, student attitudes, and classroom space. The findings from this study will help those making pedagogical decisions in higher education as well as educators interested in implementing FCIM.