Date of Award

Summer 2019

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



Committee Chair

Evan H. Dart

Committee Chair School


Committee Member 2

Brad Dufrene

Committee Member 2 School


Committee Member 3

Lauren McKinley

Committee Member 3 School


Committee Member 4

Keith Radley

Committee Member 4 School



Collecting efficient and reliable behavior assessment data is often a goal for school districts and school psychologists. Unfortunately, the most accurate methods of behavior observations, systematic direct observations (SDO), can be time-intensive and often requires specific training. This often minimizes the number of trained professional available for observation procedures. Planned activity check (PAC), a variation of momentary time sampling, has the potential to combine the accuracy of SDO with efficiency. However, few studies have evaluated the psychometric principals of PAC. The current study sought to evaluate the reliability and dependability of PAC by comparing PAC to an individual-fixed (I-F) SDO. The current study assessed group-based behaviors using two methods of SDO: individual-fixed and PAC. Observations occurred across 6 classrooms for 10 consecutive days with classroom teachers implementing PAC in conjunction with trained researchers. Results from the current study yield positive outcomes of I-F and PAC being reliable and dependable measures of group-based behaviors with an I-F G-Coefficient of .959 and PAC G-Coefficient of .889. Results also indicated that SDO and PAC can be dependable measures in addition to being efficient with follow-up dependability studies indicating SDO after two days reaches a G coefficient of .826 and PAC after four days reaches a G coefficient of .814. Finally, social validity data taken by teachers at the completion of the study indicated favorable reviews of PAC across acceptability, understanding and feasibility.