Date of Award

Spring 2020

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Center for Science and Math Education


Center for Science and Math Education

Committee Chair

Richard Mohn

Committee Chair School


Committee Member 2

Sherry Herron

Committee Member 2 School

Center for Science and Math Education

Committee Member 3

John Bailey

Committee Member 4

Jameka Grigsby

Committee Member 5

Gloria Miller


Virtual courses function in a different manner than traditional courses, therefore they require teaching methods and assessment techniques geared specifically to maximize this learning experience. Internet-based learning and distance-education are no longer new concepts in the science field. Because of this, many collegiate biology programs have created courses that can be taken virtual or hybrid. A number of experimental studies have had great influence in terms of the effects and impacts of educational technology in relation to virtual laboratories.

However, not many studies emphasize the impact of hybrid laboratories on student achievement or assess students’ motivation to learn in a biological course. This study’s focus is to initiate the process of analyzing objective findings on the impact of biological hybrid laboratories on students’ achievement and motivation to learn biology in a collegiate level environment. There is a rapid increase in the number of colleges and universities offering hybrid courses. Therefore, it is essential to conduct research on the effectiveness of hybrid biology laboratory courses before more courses are offered and widespread adoption takes place. First year biology students participated in one of three biology lab environments (traditional, virtual, and hybrid). Students’ laboratory averages were compared to measure achievement, pre-test and post-test scores were compared to measure gain scores, and a motivation to learn biology questionnaire was compared to measure degrees of biology motivation. The data acquired from this study will help determine the practicality and feasibility of replacing traditional and virtual laboratories with the newer hybrid biological lab.