Title

Facile Synthetic Procedure for ω, Primary Amine Functionalization Directly in Water for Subsequent Fluorescent Labeling and Potential Bioconjugation of RAFT-Synthesized (Co)Polymers

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

8-1-2007

Department

Polymers and High Performance Materials

Abstract

We describe a facile method to amine functionalize and subsequently fluorescently label polymethacrylamides synthesized via reversible addition−fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. RAFT-generated poly(N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide-b-N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl] methacrylamide) (poly(HPMA-b-DMAPMA)), a water soluble biocompatible polymer, is first converted to a polymeric thiol and functionalized with a primary amine through a disulfide exchange reaction with cystamine and subsequently reacted with the amine-functionalized fluorescent dye, 6-(fluorescein-5-carboxamido)hexanoic acid, succinimidyl ester (5-SFX). Poly(HPMA258-b-DMAPMA13) (Mn = 39 700 g/mol, Mw/Mn = 1.06), previously synthesized by RAFT polymerization, was used to demonstrate this facile labeling method. The problem with labeling the ω-terminal chain end of a RAFT-synthesized polymethacrylamide is that the reduced end yields a tertiary thiol with low reactivity. The key to labeling poly(HPMA-b-DMAPMA) is to first reduce the dithioester chain end with a strong reducing agent such as NaBH4, and then functionalize the tertiary polymeric thiol with a primary amine through a disulfide exchange reaction with dihydrochloride cystamine. We show that the disulfide exchange reaction is efficient and that the amine-functionalized poly(HPMA-b-DMAPMA) can be easily labeled with the fluorescent dye, 5-SFX. This concept is proven by using a ninhydrin assay to detect primary amines and UV−vis spectroscopy to measure the degree of conjugation.

Publication Title

Biomacromolecules

Volume

8

Issue

8

First Page

2337

Last Page

2341

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