Psychometric Evaluation of the Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy Scale: Revised With College Students in the United States

Document Type


Publication Date





Drinking refusal self-efficacy has recently emerged as a potential factor related to reduced alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences in college students. The Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy Questionnaire-Revised (DRSEQ-R) has been commonly used to assess for drinking refusal self-efficacy. However, psychometric evaluation of the measure with college students from the United States is needed to enhance its research and clinical utility. The goal of the present study was to confirm the factor structure of the DRSEQ-R with a sample of traditional aged college students from the United States as well as assess the measurement invariance of the factor structure across sex and race and the measure's convergent validity with other common alcohol use measures. Traditional age college students (n = 1683, 73% women; 63% White, non-Hispanic) completed measures of drink refusal self-efficacy, protective behavioral strategies, weekly alcohol use, hazardous drinking, and alcohol-related negative consequences. Using exploratory factor analysis and multi-group confirmatory factor analyses, a three-factor structure was identified, but, unlike the DRSEQ-R, one item loaded onto the opportunistic relief factor instead of the social pressure factor. The proposed model registered more reliable internal consistencies across the subscales, was invariant across sex and race, and demonstrated acceptable convergent validity with other commonly used alcohol measures. The proposed model for the DRSE-R may be a more psychometrically sound way to assess for drinking refusal self-efficacy among college students in the United States. Implications, limitations, and future research directions are discussed.

Publication Title

Addictive Behaviors



First Page


Last Page


Find in your library