Mindfulness as an End-State: Construction of a Trait Measure of Mindfulness
Mindfulness has been studied extensively in both basic and clinical settings; however, discussions still persist. The current research approached this issue by creating a new measure of trait mindfulness. The construct defined within is end-state mindfulness and is a tendency to see things as they are moment by moment without any judgment. The newly created scale was validated in three studies. End-state mindfulness was negatively correlated with rumination, suppression, neuroticism, and better-than-average effect, but was not correlated with both positive and negative trait-affectivity; it also moderated negative emotional reactions in the context of mortality salience. End-state mindfulness was differentiated from the past measure of mindfulness in many aspects.
Personality and Individual Differences
(2017). Mindfulness as an End-State: Construction of a Trait Measure of Mindfulness. Personality and Individual Differences, 106, 298-307.
Available at: https://aquila.usm.edu/fac_pubs/15322