Chemistry and Biochemistry
Mathematics and Natural Sciences
HIV-1 integrase (IN) is essential for virus replication and represents an important multifunctional therapeutic target. Recently discovered quinoline-based allosteric IN inhibitors (ALLINIs) potently impair HIV-1 replication and are currently in clinical trials. ALLINIs exhibit a multimodal mechanism of action by inducing aberrant IN multimerization during virion morphogenesis and by competing with IN for binding to its cognate cellular cofactor LEDGF/p75 during early steps of HIV-1 infection. However, quinoline-based ALLINIs impose a low genetic barrier for the evolution of resistant phenotypes, which highlights a need for discovery of second-generation inhibitors. Using crystallographic screening of a library of 971 fragments against the HIV-1 IN catalytic core domain (CCD) followed by a fragment expansion approach, we have identified thiophenecarboxylic acid derivatives that bind at the CCD-CCD dimer interface at the principal lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF)/p75 binding pocket. The most active derivative (5) inhibited LEDGF/p75-dependent HIV-1 IN activity in vitro with an IC50 of 72 μm and impaired HIV-1 infection of T cells at an EC50 of 36 μm. The identified lead compound, with a relatively small molecular weight (221 Da), provides an optimal building block for developing a new class of inhibitors. Furthermore, although structurally distinct thiophenecarboxylic acid derivatives target a similar pocket at the IN dimer interface as the quinoline-based ALLINIs, the lead compound, 5, inhibited IN mutants that confer resistance to quinoline-based compounds. Collectively, our findings provide a plausible path for structure-based development of second-generation ALLINIs.
Journal of Biological Chemistry
Koneru, P. C.,
Kessl, J. J.,
Levy, R. M.,
Fuchs, J. R.,
Olson, A. J.,
Engelman, A. N.,
Bauman, J. D.,
(2016). A New Class of Allosteric HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors Identified by Crstallographic Fragment Screening of the Catalytic Core Domain. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 291(45), 23569-23577.
Available at: https://aquila.usm.edu/fac_pubs/16743