Ocean Science and Engineering
The refractory elements in the ocean are those that are not readily dissolved in seawater, including Al, Sc, Ti, Fe, Ga, Zr, Nb, In, Hf, Ta, Bi, and Th. These elements are rapidly removed from solution by interaction with the surfaces of sinking particles, a process referred to as “scavenging.” In general, these elements have oceanic distributions reflective of their sources. The average time they spend in the oceans, known as the oceanic residence time, ranges from a few years to a few thousands of years.
Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences (Third Edition)
Hayes, C. T.
(2019). Refractory Metals. Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences (Third Edition), 198-207.
Available at: https://aquila.usm.edu/fac_pubs/18053