Title

Refractory Metals

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

3-13-2019

Department

Marine Science

School

Ocean Science and Engineering

Abstract

The refractory elements in the ocean are those that are not readily dissolved in seawater, including Al, Sc, Ti, Fe, Ga, Zr, Nb, In, Hf, Ta, Bi, and Th. These elements are rapidly removed from solution by interaction with the surfaces of sinking particles, a process referred to as “scavenging.” In general, these elements have oceanic distributions reflective of their sources. The average time they spend in the oceans, known as the oceanic residence time, ranges from a few years to a few thousands of years.

Publication Title

Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences (Third Edition)

First Page

198

Last Page

207

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