J.C. Hermes, The South African Environmental Observation Network
Y. Masumoto, University of Tokyo
L.M. Beal, University of Miami
M.K. Roxy, Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
J. Vialard, Sorbonne Universités
M. Andres, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
H. Annamalai, University of Hawaii
S. Behera, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology
N. D'Adamo, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO
T. Doi, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology
M. Feng, Centre for Southern Hemisphere Oceans Research
W. Han, University of Colorado
N. Hardman-Mountford, Trade, Oceans and Natural Resources, Commonwealth Secretariat, London, United Kingdom
H. Hendon, Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
R. Hood, University of Maryland
S. Kido, University of Tokyo
C. Lee, University of Washington
T. Lee, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA
M. Lengaigne, Sorbonne Universités
J. Li, International CLIVAR Project Office
R. Lumpkin, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (NOAA)
K.N. Navaneeth, National Institute of Ocean Technology, Chennai, India
B. Milligan, University of New South Wales
M.J. McPhaden, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (NOAA)
M. Ravichandran, National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research
T. Shinoda, Texas A&M University–Corpus Christi
A. Singh, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, India
B. Sloyan, Centre for Southern Hemisphere Oceans Research
P.G. Strutton, Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania
A.C. Subramanian, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego
S. Thurston, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA
T. Tozuka, University of Tokyo
C.C. Ummenhofer, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
A.S. Unnikrishnan, National Institute of Oceanography (CSIR)
R. Venkatesan, National Institute of Ocean Technology
D. Wang, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology (CAS)
J. Wiggert, University of Southern MississippiFollow
L. Yu, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
W. Yu, First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao, China

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Marine Science


Ocean Science and Engineering


The Indian Ocean is warming faster than any of the global oceans and its climate is uniquely driven by the presence of a landmass at low latitudes, which causes monsoonal winds and reversing currents. The food, water, and energy security in the Indian Ocean rim countries and islands are intrinsically tied to its climate, with marine environmental goods and services, as well as trade within the basin, underpinning their economies. Hence, there are a range of societal needs for Indian Ocean observation arising from the influence of regional phenomena and climate change on, for instance, marine ecosystems, monsoon rains, and sea-level. The Indian Ocean Observing System (IndOOS), is a sustained observing system that monitors basin-scale ocean-atmosphere conditions, while providing flexibility in terms of emerging technologies and scientificand societal needs, and a framework for more regional and coastal monitoring. This paper reviews the societal and scientific motivations, current status, and future directions of IndOOS, while also discussing the need for enhanced coastal, shelf, and regional observations. The challenges of sustainability and implementation are also addressed, including capacity building, best practices, and integration of resources. The utility of IndOOS ultimately depends on the identification of, and engagement with, end-users and decision-makers and on the practical accessibility and transparency of data for a range of products and for decision-making processes. Therefore we highlight current progress, issues and challenges related to end user engagement with IndOOS, as well as the needs of the data assimilation and modeling communities. Knowledge of the status of the Indian Ocean climate and ecosystems and predictability of its future, depends on a wide range of socio-economic and environmental data, a significant part of which is provided by IndOOS.

Publication Title

Frontiers In Marine Science



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