Optimized Binding of Substituted Quinoline ALLINIs Within the HIV-1 Integrase Oligomer

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Publication Date



Chemistry and Biochemistry


Mathematics and Natural Sciences


During the integration step, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase (IN) interacts with viral DNA and the cellular cofactor LEDGF/p75 to effectively integrate the reverse transcript into the host chromatin. Allosteric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase inhibitors (ALLINIs) are a new class of antiviral agents that bind at the dimer interface of the IN catalytic core domain and occupy the binding site of LEDGF/p75. While originally designed to block IN-LEDGF/p75 interactions during viral integration, several of these compounds have been shown to also severely impact viral maturation through an IN multimerization mechanism. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that these dual properties of ALLINIs could be decoupled toward late stage viral replication effects by generating additional contact points between the bound ALLINI and a third subunit of IN. By sequential derivatization at position 7 of a quinoline-based ALLINI scaffold, we show that IN multimerization properties are enhanced by optimizing hydrophobic interactions between the compound and the C-terminal domain of the third IN subunit. These features not only improve the overall antiviral potencies of these compounds but also significantly shift the ALLINIs selectivity toward the viral maturation stage. Thus, we demonstrate that to fully maximize the potency of ALLINIs, the interactions between the inhibitor and all three IN subunits need to be simultaneously optimized.

Publication Title

Journal of Biological Chemistry



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