#### Title

Observation of Discrete Oscillations In a Model-Independent Plot of Cosmological Scale Factor Versus Lookback Time and Scalar Field Model

#### Document Type

Article

#### Publication Date

4-1-2015

#### Department

Physics and Astronomy

#### School

Mathematics and Natural Sciences

#### Abstract

We have observed damped longitudinal cosmological-scale oscillations in a unique model-independent plot of scale factor against lookback time for Type Ia supernovae data. We found several first-derivative relative maxima/minima spanning the range of reported transition redshifts. These extrema comprise two full cycles with a period of approximately 0.15 Hubble times (*H*_{0}=68 km s^{−1} Mpc^{−1}). This period corresponds to a fundamental frequency of approximately seven cycles over the Hubble time. Transition-*z* values quoted in the literature generally fall near these minima and may explain the reported wide spread up to the predicted ΛCDM value of approximately *z* = 0.77. We also observe second and third harmonics of the fundamental. The scale factor data is analyzed several different ways, including smoothing, Fourier transform, and autocorrelation. We propose a cosmological scalar field harmonic oscillator model for the observation. On this timescale, for a quantum scalar field, the scalar field mass is extraordinarily small at 3 **×** 10^{-32} eV. Our scalar field density parameter precisely replaces the ΛCDM dark matter density parameter in the Friedmann equations, resulting in essentially identical data fits, and its present value matches the Planck value. Thus the wave is fundamentally a dark matter wave. We therefore posit that this scalar field manifests itself as the dark matter.

#### Publication Title

Astronomical Journal

#### Volume

149

#### Issue

4

#### Recommended Citation

Ringermacher, H.,
Mead, L.
(2015). Observation of Discrete Oscillations In a Model-Independent Plot of Cosmological Scale Factor Versus Lookback Time and Scalar Field Model. *Astronomical Journal, 149*(4).

Available at: https://aquila.usm.edu/fac_pubs/18693