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Chemistry and Biochemistry


Mathematics and Natural Sciences


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects cognition and memory. Recent advances have helped identify many clinical sub-types in AD. Mounting evidence point toward structural polymorphism among fibrillar aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ) to being responsible for the phenotypes and clinical manifestations. In the emerging paradigm of polymorphism and prion-like propagation of aggregates in AD, the role of low molecular weight soluble oligomers, which are long known to be the primary toxic agents, in effecting phenotypes remains inconspicuous. In this study, we present the characterization of three soluble oligomers of Aβ42, namely 14LPOs, 16LPOs, and GM1Os with discreet biophysical and biochemical properties generated using lysophosphatidyl glycerols and GM1 gangliosides. The results indicate that the oligomers share some biophysical similarities but display distinctive differences with GM1Os. Unlike the other two, GM1Os were observed to be complexed with the lipid upon isolation. It also differs mainly in detection by conformation-sensitive dyes and conformation-specific antibodies, temperature and enzymatic stability, and in the ability to propagate morphologically-distinct fibrils. GM1Os also show distinguishable biochemical behavior with pronounced neuronal toxicity. Furthermore, all the oligomers induce cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and plaque burden in transgenic AD mice, which seems to be a consistent feature among all lipid-derived oligomers, but 16LPOs and GM1Os displayed significantly higher effect than the others. These results establish a correlation between molecular features of Aβ42 oligomers and their distinguishable effects in transgenic AD mice attuned by lipid characteristics, and therefore help bridge the knowledge gap in understanding how oligomer conformers could elicit AD phenotypes.

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FASEB Journal





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