State of the Art in Stereoscopic and Autostereoscopic Displays
Polymers and High Performance Materials
Underlying principles of stereoscopic direct-view displays, binocular head-mounted displays, and autostereoscopic direct-view displays are explained and some early work as well as the state of the art in those technologies are reviewed. Stereoscopic displays require eyewear and can be categorized based on the multiplexing scheme as: 1) color multiplexed (old technology but there are some recent developments; low-quality due to color reproduction and crosstalk issues; simple and does not require additional electronics hardware); 2) polarization multiplexed (requires polarized light output and polarization-based passive eyewear; high-resolution and high-quality displays available); and 3) time multiplexed (requires faster display hardware and active glasses synchronized with the display; high-resolution commercial products available). Binocular head-mounted displays can readily provide 3-D, virtual images, immersive experience, and more possibilities for interactive displays. However, the bulk of the optics, matching of the left and right ocular images and obtaining a large field of view make the designs quite challenging. Some of the recent developments using unconventional optical relays allow for thin form factors and open up new possibilities. Autostereoscopic displays are very attractive as they do not require any eyewear. There are many possibilities in this category including: two-view (the simplest implementations are with a parallax barrier or a lenticular screen), multiview, head tracked (requires active optics to redirect the rays to a moving viewer), and super multiview (potentially can solve the accommodation-convergence mismatch problem). Earlier 3-D booms did not last long mainly due to the unavailability of enabling technologies and the content. Current developments in the hardware technologies provide a renewed interest in 3-D displays both from the consumers and the display manufacturers, which is evidenced by the recent commercial products and new research results in this field.
Proceedings of the IEEE
Chellappan, K. V.,
(2011). State of the Art in Stereoscopic and Autostereoscopic Displays. Proceedings of the IEEE, 99(4), 540-555.
Available at: https://aquila.usm.edu/fac_pubs/351