The Relative and Unique Contributions of Emotion Dysregulation and Impulsivity to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Substance Dependent Inpatients
Background: Despite elevated rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among substance use disorder (SUD) patients, as well as the clinical relevance of this co-occurrence, few studies have examined psychological factors associated with a PTSD-SUD diagnosis. Two factors worth investigating are emotion dysregulation and impulsivity, both of which are associated with PTSD and SUDs. Therefore, this study examined associations between PTSD and facets of emotion dysregulation and impulsivity within a sample of trauma-exposed SUD inpatients. Methods: Participants were an ethnically diverse sample of 205 SUD patients in residential substance abuse treatment. Patients were administered diagnostic interviews and completed a series of questionnaires. Results: Patients with PTSD (n = 58) reported significantly higher levels of negative urgency (i.e., the tendency to engage in impulsive behaviors when experiencing negative affect) and lower sensation seeking, as well as higher levels of emotion dysregulation and the specific dimensions of lack of emotional acceptance, difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior when upset, difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors when distressed, limited access to effective emotion regulation strategies, and lack of emotional clarity. Further, overall emotion dysregulation emerged as a significant predictor of PTSD status, accounting for unique variance in PTSD status above and beyond facets of impulsivity (as well as other relevant covariates). Conclusions: Results suggest that emotion dysregulation may contribute to the development, maintenance, and/or exacerbation of PTSD and highlight the potential clinical utility of targeting emotion dysregulation among SUD patients with PTSD. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.