Achievement and Out-of-School Time Use of Intellectually Gifted Students In Grades Five and Six

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Educational Leadership and School Counseling

First Advisor

Frances A. Karnes

Advisor Department

Educational Leadership and School Counseling


The relationship between achievement and measures of out-of-school time, devoted to various interests of 62 intellectually gifted students in grades five and six, was examined. Patterns of time use indicated that subjects spent more time viewing television than participating in any other measured activity. Means for time spent viewing television were highest for both nonhigh achievers, thoss scoring at the 89th percentile and below on the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills, Survey Battery, and high achievers, those scoring at or above the 90th percentile on the total. Most students spent little time studying or reading. A time diary with parent verification was the method for collecting data, which was recorded by students for a nonconsecutive two-week period. Multiple regression analyses supported the hypothesis of a significant relationship between achievement and the combined independent variables of studying, reading for fun, watching television, using multimedia, developing talent, and relevant demographic factors. An hypothesis of interaction between grade and measures of out-of school time was not found to be significant, nor was interaction between self-concept, measured by the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (Piers & Harris, 1969), and measures of out-of-school time on the variable level of achievement. An hypothesis of a positive relationship between achievement and each independent variable, while controlling for demographics, did not result in statistical significance. A literature review, discussion of relevant achievement factors, and research priorities for future study were noted.