Differences Between the Emotionality Preferences of Chapter 1 and Non-Chapter 1, African-American Students

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Educational Studies and Research

First Advisor

Arthur Southerland

Advisor Department

Educational Studies and Research


This study investigated the differences between Chapter 1 and non-Chapter 1 African American students on the learning style emotionality preferences of motivation, persistence, responsibility, and structure. The sample consisted of 116 African American fifth- and sixth-grade students from an urban school district in Louisiana. Fifty-eight students received Chapter 1 services and 58 students did not receive Chapter 1 services. The students were administered the Learning Style Inventory (LSI) (Dunn, Dunn, & Price, 1989). The statistical test used to determine the hypotheses of significant differences was the t-test. The analyses of the data revealed that the Chapter 1 African American students in the sample have a preference for external motivators such as teacher encouragement and supervision when they are learning and processing information. A higher mean score for non-Chapter 1 students indicated that they are more intrinsically motivated and prefer to engage in learning activities with less direct teacher supervision. Analyses of the data revealed that Chapter 1 African American students were less responsible than non-Chapter 1 African American students. This indicates that the non-Chapter 1 students in the sample are more conforming to teachers' directions and expectations. The data did not show significant differences between the Chapter 1 and non-Chapter 1 students on the elements of persistence and structure. The data supports prior research that low reading achievement students are less motivated and less responsible than high reading achievement students.