Using the Prochaska Stage of Change Model to Predict the Effectiveness of a Smoking Cessation Program In a Residential Substance Abuse Program

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

William Goggin

Advisor Department



This study applied the Stages of Change model to assess readiness to stop smoking, and the efficacy of a smoking-cessation program, by using cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis. The study administered the Stages of Change (Long Form and Short Form), the Process of Change, and the Pros and Cons of Smoking measures, over a two-week interval, to an Intervention group, which was made up of smokers who were participating in a smoking-cessation program while they were undergoing treatment for substance abuse at a Salvation Army residential treatment facility, and to a Control soup of smokers that consisted of university undergraduates. The study sought to identify initial differences between the groups, and changes in the Stages, Processes, and Pros and Cons, from pre- to post-intervention. It was anticipated that on the pretest, the Intervention and Control groups would be in different stages, as well as engaged in using different processes, and would also endorse different levels of positive and negative attributes that are associated with smoking. The longitudinal analysis was to determine whether there were chances in the participants' stage membership, processes, or positive and negative attributes that are associated with smoking. It was anticipated that there would be pretest to posttest changes in the Stages and Processes of Change, and the Pros and Cons of Smoking, for the Intervention group, but not for the Control group. Pretest group differences were found for the Stages of Change Long Form and the Processes of Change, but not for the Stages of Change Short Form or the Pros and Cons of Smoking. As anticipated, the Intervention group showed significant differences on the Stages of Change Long Form (on the stages of Contemplation and Maintenance), but no pretest group differences were found on the Short Form. Contrary to expectations, the Control group showed more use of the Processes of Change (Self-liberation, Helping-relationships, Counter-conditioning, and Dramatic Relief) than did the Intervention group. There was no main effect for Trials, nor Trials by Groups interaction.