Gender-Roles and Sexism In Adolescents: An Examination of Gender and Race

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

William Goggin

Advisor Department



The relationships among gender, race, masculinity, femininity, and sexism in high school students were investigated. Masculinity and femininity were measured using the Children's Sex-Role Inventory (CSRI), and sexism was assessed using the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI). Results indicated that boys had significantly higher levels of masculinity and sexism than did girls, and girls had higher levels of femininity than did boys. The differences between the genders on masculinity and femininity were very small, and the usefulness of the labels "masculine" and "feminine" based on CSRI scores was questioned. No racial differences were found on the CSRI, but African-Americans were found to have higher levels of benevolent sexism than Caucasians. The use of the median-split method of classifying participants by gender-role was discussed, and it was proposed that classifying participants by gender-role using the CSRI may not results in meaningful information. It was proposed that the term "agentic" be used in place of "masculine", and the term "communal" be used in place of "feminine". The results concerning sexism indicated that boys overall could be classified as "sexist", while girls would not be classified as "sexist".