The effects of direct training and the STAR problem solving model on teachers' treatment integrity and generalized use of an intervention
Direct training procedures have been beneficial in increasing teachers' knowledge and skills for the use of recommended intervention for target students in their classrooms. However, direct training alone has not been successful in teachers' consistent and sustained use of the intervention for the target student and the generalized use of the intervention to non-target students, novel settings, and problem behaviors is relatively unknown. The present study examined the effects of direct training and a cognitive based problem solving model (the STAR problem solving model) on teachers' use of specific, labeled praise (SLP) directed to both target and non-target students. Participants were five general education teachers who referred a student who exhibited mild disruptive behaviors (e.g., off task, inappropriate vocalization) in their classroom. Initially, all teachers displayed low rates of SLP directed to the target and non-target students. Three participants were exposed to direct training with the STAR problem solving model whereas two participants were initially exposed to either direct training or the STAR problem solving model and later exposed to the other training type. Three out of five participants required booster trainings to facilitate intervention use. Results were varied across participants, however, all participants increased their use of SLP directed to target and nontarget students from baseline following initial or booster trainings. Results suggest that explicit in-vivo training or additional performance feedback procedures may be necessary for consistent intervention use. Changes in target students' disruptive behaviors across phases are also reported. Results are discussed in terms of potential limitations and directions for future research.