A Comparison of the Effects of Programmed Tutoring On Self-Concept and Reading Achievement of Third Grade Title I Students

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Educational Studies and Research

First Advisor

Hampton S. Williams

Advisor Department

Educational Studies and Research


The primary purpose of this study was to identify the effects of individualized programed reading instruction on reading achievement and self-concept of third-grade Title I students. Subjects were 67 third-grade Title I students from two elementary schools in a municipal separate school district. The independent t-test for homogeneity of the control group's and experimental group's pretest self-concept scores and pretest achievement scores showed that the groups at the initial phase of this study were similar. An attempt was made through this study to determine if the reading and self-concept test scores of Title I students, who received 15 minutes of individualized programed reading instruction daily as a supplement to regular classroom instruction for seven months, were significantly higher than a control group of Title I students who did not receive the treatment. Treatment effect was determined by using analysis of covariance. An F-ratio of 6.137 indicated a statistically significant difference favoring the tutored group in reading achievement at the .05 level of probability; whereas, an F-ratio of .325 indicated that there was not a statistically significant difference in self-concept scores at the .05 level of probability. The implications of this study are that Programed Tutorial Reading is a successful technique based on laboratory studies and that it is an adequate instructional method that can contribute to the teaching of elementary reading by paraprofessionals. A structured programed approach for enhancing student's self-concept needs to be added to this program.