A Study of the Effects of Concrete Experiences on the Problem-Solving Ability of Tenth-Grade Students (Formal Thinking, Process Skills, Piagetian)

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Educational Studies and Research

First Advisor

Fred W. Brown

Advisor Department

Educational Studies and Research


This study was designed to determine the effects specific concrete experiences would have on problem-solving ability requiring logical thinking. The non-equivalent control group design with delayed posttesting was used. Intact class sections were randomly assigned to the experimental (concrete activities) and control (traditional) groups. Each group was administered the Test of Logical Thinking and the Test of Integrated Process Skills prior to participation in fifteen concrete activities, at the conclusion of the activities and four weeks after the conclusion of instruction. The analysis of data utilized a variety of statistical techniques. The experimental group exhibited significantly higher scores on the posttest and the delayed posttest on logical thinking measures. The experimental group also achieved higher scores on certain subtests of the posttest and delayed posttest on the process skills measure. A strong positive correlation was determined between process skills and logical thinking. This study suggests that specific concrete experiences provide an effective instructional technique for improving problem-solving ability related to logical thinking. The research also illustrates that the correlation between the two variables indicates that instruction in logical thinking skills may also improve some process skills.