The Effects of a Researcher-Designed Manipulative On Algebra II Students' Ability and Retention of Ability To Solve Absolute Value Problem Statements

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Curriculum, Instruction, and Special Education

First Advisor

Bobby D. Moore

Advisor Department

Curriculum, Instruction, and Special Education


The primary purpose of this study was to encourage the design and investigation of manipulatives and the creation of alternative concrete techniques in teaching various topics in the secondary mathematics classroom. One-way analysis of covariance was the statistical technique employed in the analysis of the data which related to the first eight hypotheses. The technique compared the difference in unit test scores and retention test scores on the independent variable, type of treatment of a researcher-designed manipulative. Additionally, within each treatment group, differences in unit test scores and retention test scores were examined on the independent variable, gender. Two-way analysis of covariance was employed to study possible interactions between gender and the type of treatment of the manipulative. In all cases, the covariate was pretest scores. The findings in this study showed that students who used the AVS technique from both the manipulative (AVSM) group and the concept (AVSC) group had significantly better scores on unit tests and retention tests than students in the control group. However, there was no significant difference in the scores of students from the manipulative group compared with students in the concept group. There were also no significant differences between the scores of males and females on the unit and retention tests within each of the manipulative group and concept group. Significant interaction with gender occurred only between the concept group and control group retention scores. The interaction illustrated that while both males and females performed better in the concept group than those in the control group, the amount of improved performance was significantly greater for females than for males.