Choctaw Mixed Bloods and the Advent of Removal

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

John D.W. Guice

Advisor Department



Most studies of Indian-white relations in the Old Southwest either condemn federal and state policies as expansionist and racist or defend those policies as necessary and proper. Such approaches tend to paint the historical picture in dichotomous tones neglecting to analyze the subtle, positive relationships between Indians and whites that existed outside of confrontation. This dissertation addresses one such area concerning white countrymen and their mixed-blood offspring living with the Choctaw tribe before Removal. Much of what transpired between the Choctaw nation and the United States government from 1795 until Choctaw Removal in 1830 was heavily affected by this group of white countrymen and their Choctaw-speaking children. The Chickasaw, Cherokee, and Creek experience was similar. There is also plentiful anecdotal evidence from nineteenth century historians that countrymen and mixed bloods were commonplace in Indian tribes of Mississippi Territory. Indeed there exist several thousand names from government claims records and commission hearings, as well as genealogical evidence, which indicate a broad occurrence of mixed bloods, especially in the Choctaw tribe. This study lists the names and families of the known mixed bloods and examines their role in tribal history, especially regarding land treaties during the Jeffersonian years preceding Removal. This study includes a database of over three thousand names of known and probable mixed bloods drawn from a wide range of sources and therefore has genealogical as well as historical value.