The effect of different feedback formats on tennis forehand and backhand stroke performances of beginning players under open and closed situations
The purpose of this study was to determine the differences among four groups of tennis students on the variables of form and skill scores of tennis forehand and backhand strokes in an open and closed situation during three consecutive weeks. VA (group 1) was assigned video assignment with a checklist, IV (group 2) received the immediate video feedback for five sessions, TI (group 3) received traditional instruction, and NO (group 4) was not given any feedback. The relationship between form and skill of tennis forehand and backhand strokes was also investigated. Subjects for this study were volunteers gathered through advertising. The 72 participants used as subjects for this study were divided into four groups. Each group consisted of 15 active subjects and 3 alternates to replace sick or otherwise missing participants. For the Form scores, a three-point scale was used by five judges, who are experienced tennis coaches, watching independently the videotapes that contained the forehand and backhand drive forms of all subjects. For the skill scores, the Hewitt's Tennis Achievement Test (Hewitt, 1966) was used to assess skill levels of subjects. Hypotheses 1 through 10 were analyzed by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Tukey's test was used with ANCOVA. Hypotheses 11 was analyzed by Pearson's r (product-moment correlation coefficient) for this study. The.05 level of confidence was used in testing the hypotheses. According to the results of the findings, the videotape assignment feedback has no better influence on improving tennis forehand and backhand forms and skills than the immediate videotape feedback and the traditional instruction feedback. The videotape assignment, the immediate videotape, and traditional instruction feedbacks have better influence on improving tennis forehand and backhand forms and skills than no feedback. The videotape assignment and the immediate videotape feedbacks have no better influence on improving tennis forehand and backhand forms and skills than the traditional instruction feedback. The results also indicated no relationship between form and skill. Based on the results of the study it is recommended that the training period may need to be six weeks and 18 sessions instead of three weeks and more than nine sessions with advanced students of tennis rather than beginners. Other activities such as golf, which may be considered of more complex motions, may be good for this study. For the relationship between form and skill, it is recommended that form scores should be investigated while skills are being performed.