Self-perception, temperament type, achievement, grade level, and gender in intellectually gifted youth
The present study examined the relationship between temperament type and the composite set of variables of self-perception, the extraversion-introversion dimension (E/I), academic achievement, grade level, and gender in intellectually gifted students in grades 4 through 8. Additionally, this study examined the degree to which the temperament type and the extraversion-introversion dimension (E/I) means differed according to selected demographic variables on the dependent variable of self-perception. Two hundred ninety-two intellectually gifted students in a Louisiana suburban public school district were given the Murphy Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children (Meisgeier & Murphy, 1987) (MMTIC) and the Harter Self-Perception Profile for Children (Harter, HSPPC, 1985). Multiple linear regression, multiple discriminant analysis, and multivariate analysis of variance were used to test all hypotheses. This study found that the composite set of variables (self-perception, the E/I dimension, academic achievement, gender, and grade level) had a low to moderate significant relationship with temperament type, and that these variables were highly intercorrelated. Further findings indicated that the relationship between self-perception and the set of independent variables (grade level, gender, academic achievement, and the E/I dimension) significantly differed according to temperament type. Additionally, significant differences and significant interaction between the extraversion-introversion dimension (E/I) and self-perception were found. Extraverts scored significantly higher than introverts and the undecided group on athletic competence. The undecided group scored significantly higher than introverts on social acceptance. No significant interaction between temperament type, the E/I dimension, and grade level was found. Significant interaction between gender and grade level and self-perception was found. Males scored higher than females on athletic competence and physical appearance while females scored higher than males on behavioral conduct. Fifth graders scored higher on physical appearance than did students in all other grades. Included are conclusions and recommendations for further research.