The relationship between shared leadership, teacher self-efficacy, and student achievement
Decisions about ways to improve student achievement have been of concern over the years (Reeves, 2011). Multiple reforms have been attempted (Evers, 2000; Marzano, 2000), but researchers have differed in viewpoints on their effectiveness (Jennings & Rentner, 2006; Rose, 20 I 0). State test scores in Mississippi have not risen to levels mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act (2001), and waivers have brought new challenges to districts (Ravitch, 2012). Administrators have to focus their attention in areas other than new programs and new personnel to correct the path of education (Coburn, 2001; Hargreaves & Macmillan, 1995; Sledge & Moorehead, 2006). This study's purpose was to determine the relationship between shared leadership, teacher self-efficacy, and student achievement. Quantitative research was utilized to determine a relationship between distributed leadership dimensions and teacher self-efficacy, between teacher self-efficacy and student achievement, and to examine differences in principals' and teachers' perceptions of leadership. Results revealed a small to moderately significant relationship between the dimensions of distributed leadership and the sub scales of teacher self-efficacy, but no significant correlation between teacher self-efficacy and student achievement as measured by the MCT2 scores. There was no significant difference between administrator and teacher perceptions of leadership in the three dimensions of mission, culture, or leadership. A significant difference was found for the dimension of shared responsibility. In a time of increasing accountability, school staff have to consider leadership methods that move away from the top-down, singular approaches of the past (Angelle, 2010). Although the literature provides evidence of a positive connection between teacher self-efficacy, shared leadership and student achievement (Copeland, 2003), the results of this study did not reflect the same connection. This study did, however, indicate a positive correlation between shared leadership and teacher self-efficacy.