Examination of the pediatric diabetes routines questionnaire in adolescents: Development of an adolescent self-report version and confirmatory factor analysis
Previous literature suggests a positive relationship between general child routines and diabetes treatment adherence. However, research examining routines specific to the diabetes regimen is lacking. Recently, the Pediatric Diabetes Routines Questionnaire (PDRQ) was developed as a parent-report measure of diabetes-specific routines for children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Though the PDRQ has provided a means to measure routines specific to the diabetes regimen, limitations exist in regard to its use with adolescents. Thus, the goals of this study were to develop and evaluate a parallel adolescent self-report version (PDRQ: Adolescent; PDRQ:A) of the PDRQ and to examine the psychometric properties of the PDRQ (now PDRQ: Parent, PDRQ:P) and PDRQ:A in a large sample of adolescents. Confirmatory factor analysis was also conducted to evaluate factorial validity. Participants included 120 parent-adolescent dyads (ages 12 to 17) and an additional 24 parents only. Participants completed the PDRQ:P/A, as well as a series of questionnaires on general adolescent routines, diabetes treatment adherence, diabetes-specific family support, and diabetes-specific family conflict to evaluate the reliability and validity of the PDRQ:P/A. The predicted factor solutions were not confirmed; however, a solid one-factor model (PDRQ:P/A Total Routines score) was supported and included three new items. Additionally, the PDRQ:P/A demonstrated good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and inter-rater reliability, and adequate validity coefficients. Overall, promising results for the PDRQ:P/A were found. Recommendations for scoring and use of the PDRQ:P/A are discussed.