Development of a scale to measure local residents' perceived social impacts of hosting large-scale sport events
Existing studies have indicated that local residents' perceptions on both positive and negative social impacts toward hosting large-scale sport events have played as a key role for developing successful sport events based on getting community-wide support and involvement. However, examining local residents' perceived social impacts have been limited due to its intangible nature and lack of valid and reliable instrument for the adequate measurement. The purpose of this study was to explore a conceptual framework of social impacts and develop a valid and reliable instrument to measure local residents' perceived social impacts of hosting large-scale sport events. A preliminary questionnaire was developed utilizing standard scale development procedures including tests for the face and content validity (i.e., a focus group interview, a panel of experts review, and a field test). Data collection was conducted at the hosting community of F1 Korean GP in Korea, and total 1567 questionnaires were deemed usable for principal axis factoring and confirmatory factor analysis. As a result of factor analyses and careful consideration to the theoretical justification, a six-factor model with 26 items was retained to assess the local residents' perceived social impacts of hosting large-scale sport events: (a) economic benefits (4 items); (b) community pride (5 items); (c) community development (6 items); (d) economic costs (3 items); (e) traffic problems (3 items); and (f) security risks (5 items). Finding of the current study revealed the multi-dimensional nature of perceived social impacts and would contribute to better understand how local residents perceived the social impacts of large-scale sport events and ultimately to garner positive and constant supports for hosting the sport events successfully.