Characterization of Mouthguard Materials: Physical and Mechanical Properties of Commercialized Products
Human Performance and Recreation
Objectives. Contemporary mouthguard materials need to perform consistently over a wide range of possible temperatures (-20 to 40 degrees C). Therefore the specific aim of this study was to characterize commercialized mouthguard materials' properties and investigate the effect of temperature on these properties. Methods. Five commercially representative thermoplastic mouthguard materials (Essix (TM) Resin, Erkoflex (TM), Proform (TM)-regular, Proform (TM)-laminate, and Polyshok (TM)) were tested. The durometer hardness, water absorption, tear strength, and impact attenuation of the mouthguard materials were measured according to ASTM D2240-05, D570-98 (2005), D624-00, and ASTM D6110-06f (modified) guidelines. Tests were conducted on five separate specimens at both room 23 +/- 2 degrees C and intra-oral 37 +/- 2 degrees C temperatures. Independent t-tests (alpha=0.05) were used to test for differences between room and intra-oral temperatures. Results. Material hardness decreased (p < 0.05) from room to intra-oral temperatures for all mouthguard materials. Water absorption increased (p <0.05) from room to intra-oral temperatures for all mouthguard materials. Tear strength decreased (p<0.05) from room to intra-oral temperatures for all mouthguard materials. Impact attenuation between room and intra-oral temperatures was different (p < 0.05) for the Erkoflex (TM), Proform (TM)-laminate, and Polyshok (TM) material respectfully. However, there was no difference between temperatures for the Essix (TM) Resin (p=.058) or Proform (TM)-regular (p=.275) materials. Significance. Temperature measureably affects the physical and mechanical properties of mouthguard materials. It is particularly noteworthy that none of the commercialized products met current ANSI and SAI standards for impact attenuation. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Academy of Dental Materials.
Gould, T. E.,
Piland, S. G.,
Hoyle, C. E.,
(2009). Characterization of Mouthguard Materials: Physical and Mechanical Properties of Commercialized Products. Dental Materials, 25(6), 771-780.
Available at: http://aquila.usm.edu/fac_pubs/1295