Surface Layer Variability in the Ross Sea, Antarctica as Assessed by In Situ Fluorescence Measurements
Phytoplankton fluorescence, temperature and salinity were measured from December through February using in situ instruments deployed at two locations in the southern Ross Sea, Antarctica during the austral summers of three consecutive years (2003-2004, 2004-2005, and 2005-2006) to assess the short-term, seasonal and interannual variations in phytoplankton biomass and oceanographic conditions. The seasonal climatologies of physical forcing variables were also determined from satellite measurements, and the data from the two sites compared to the 2000-2009 mean. In situ fluorometers were deployed at three depths at 77 degrees S, 172.7 degrees E and 77.5 degrees S, 180 degrees. Significant differences between the two sites were consistently observed, confirming the anticipated high level of spatial and temporal heterogeneity. Chlorophyll fluorescence was maximal in late December, and generally decreased rapidly to modest levels in January and February. However, during 1 year (2003-2004) a secondary bloom was found, with summer maxima being similar to those observed during spring. Fluorescence displayed a strong diel cycle, with strong quenching during periods of maximum irradiance. The magnitude of this reduction was large (the minimum average fluorescence was 25% of the daily mean) and decreased with depth. Fluorescence varied interannually, with the absolute levels and temporal patterns being different among years. The two sites had different temperature/salinity properties as measured at 24 m, and both variables changed with time. During 2004-2005 we were able to continuously measure the photosynthetic quantum efficiency of PSII (F(v)/F(m)) at 11 m, which revealed a minimum in December, and an increase in January, whereas the absolute fluorescence (F(o)) decreased simultaneously. We suggest that this reflected a mixing event, whereby available irradiance increased, allowing a short period of growth in a more favorable optical environment. While substantial variations from the mean physical forcing were observed, the linkage of these physical variations with fluorescence was not always clear. Short-term (over 24-h) changes in fluorescence occurred, and were likely related to advective events. Wind events altered fluorescence in the surface layer, and these redistributed phytoplankton in the surface. The variability in chlorophyll fluorescence and physical forcing over a variety of scales in the Ross Sea provides insights into temporal-spatial coupling of phytoplankton. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Progress in Oceanography
Smith, W. O.,
Asper, V. L.,
Stammerjohn, S. E.
(2011). Surface Layer Variability in the Ross Sea, Antarctica as Assessed by In Situ Fluorescence Measurements. Progress in Oceanography, 88(40912), 28-45.
Available at: http://aquila.usm.edu/fac_pubs/320