First and Second Order Change: Implications for Rationalist and Constructivist Cognitive Therapies
Inquiry into the nature and process of change is fundamental to the domains of counseling and psychotherapy. Particularly relevant to counselors is an understanding of the distinction between first- and second-order change. This article clarifies the distinction and suggests a relationship between these two types of change and Mahoney's (1988) recent metatheoretical contrast between rationalist and constructivist approaches to counseling. Specifically, it is proposed that rationalist approaches are guided by first -order assumptions about change whereas constructivist approaches are based on second-order principles and processes. Within this context, a number of implications for the counseling practitioner are discussed.
Journal of Counseling and Development
Lyddon, W. J.
(1990). First and Second Order Change: Implications for Rationalist and Constructivist Cognitive Therapies. Journal of Counseling and Development, 69(2), 122-127.
Available at: http://aquila.usm.edu/fac_pubs/7494