One of the project’s goals is to compile an extensive list of resources related to the “colored Carnegie libraries” of the early 20th century and the study of African American history in general. This page will expand as the project progresses.

Users at a “colored library,” 1928. Jackson Davis Collection of African American Educational Photographs, University of Virginia Special Collections, MSS-3072.


External Links

African American Historical Association (AAHS)

Association for the Study of African American Life and History (ASALH)

Blackpast.org

The Martin Luther King Research and Education Institute at Stanford University

The Moorland-Spingarn Research Center at Howard University

The Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture at NYPL

The Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture

Documentary Sources, Part 1: General

Andrew Carnegie, Race and Libraries

Akhund, Nadine. “The Work of Carnegie Endowment in the Balkans after World War One: The University Library of Belgrade, 1919-1926,” INFOtheca, 12 no. 1 (August 2011): 3- 21.

Aldrich, Willie Lee. “The History of Public Library Service for Negros in Salisbury, North Carolina, 1937-1963.” Master’s Thesis, Atlanta University, 1964.

Anderson, Sarah A. “‘The Place to Go’: The 135th Street Branch Library and the Harlem Renaissance, The Library Quarterly No. 4: 383-421.

Barker, Tommie Dora. Libraries of the South: A Report on Development, 1930-1935. Chicago: American Library Association, 1936.

Berry, John M. “Andrew Carnegie and Race.” Diverse Issues in Higher Education. Last Modified June 17, 2008. Accessed May 11, 2016. http://diverseeducation.com/article/11301

Bell, Fiona. “The Carnegie Corporation Decided on Racially-Segregated Libraries in South Africa in 1928: Negrophilist or Segregationist?” Library and Information History, No. 3 (September 2009): 174-189.

Bobinski, George S. Carnegie Libraries: Their History and Impact on American Public Library Development. Chicago: American Library Association, 1969.

Carnegie, Andrew. Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie. Boston: The Riverside Press, Cambridge, 1920.

Carnegie, Andrew. “The Best Fields for Philanthropy,” The North American Review, 149 No. 397 (December 1889): 682-698.

Carnegie, Andrew. “The Negro in America: An Address.” Delivered before the Philosophical Institutions of Edinburg, Cheyney, PA, October 16, 1907.

Clark, Patricia G. “The Politics of Information: Libraries and Librarianship in the Western Cape, South Africa, 1930s-1960s.” PhD diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2002.

“The Colored People’s Libraries of the South,” The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, No. 32 (Summer, 2001): 44-45.

Cutter, Jamie I. “Getting by at the Benjamin Mays Black Branch: Library Access for African Americans in Jim Crow South Carolina, 1940-1971.” Master’s Thesis, San Jose’ University, 2011.

Davis, Donald G. and Ronald C. Stone Jr. “Poverty of Mind and Lack of Municipal Spirit: Rejection of Carnegie Public Library Building Grants by Seven Southern Communities.” Carnegie Denied: Communities Rejecting Carnegie Library Construction Grants 1898-1925. Edited by Robert Sydney Martin Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993.

Department of the Interior, Bureau of Education. Public Libraries in the United States of America: Their History, Condition, and Management. Special Report. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1876.

Farley, Judith and Stanley Rubinstein. “Enoch Pratt Free Library and Black Patrons: Equality in Library Services, 1882-1915,” Journal of Library History, 15 no. 4 (Fall 1980): 445-453.

Farrah, Margaret Ann. “Andrew Carnegie: A Psychohistorical Sketch.” PhD diss., Carnegie-Mellon University, 1982.

James, Birdie Turner. “History and Development of Public Library Service to Negros in Mobile, Alabama, 1931-1959.” Master’s Thesis, Atlanta University, 1961.

Janzow, Laura M. The Library Without Walls: Reprints of Papers and Addresses. New York: H.W. Wilson Company, 1927.

Johnson, Alvin. Pioneer’s Progress. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1960.

Jones, Theodore. Carnegie Libraries Across America: A Public Legacy. New York: Preservation Press, 1997.

Knott, Cheryl. Not Free, Not for All: Public Libraries in the Age of Jim Crow. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 2015

Krass, Peter. Carnegie. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, 2002.

Killacky, Jim. “Public Libraries and Adult Education: An Historical Review,” Research in Rural Education, No. 2 (1983): 51-58.

Koch, Theodore Wesley. A Book of Carnegie Libraries. White Plains, NY: The H.W. Wilson Company, 1917.

Leatherman, Carolyn H. “Richmond Rejects a Library: The Carnegie Public Library Movement in Richmond, Virginia, in the Early Twentieth Century.” PhD diss., Virginia Commonwealth University, 1992.

Lester, Robert M. Forty Years of Carnegie Giving. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1941.

Lynch, Frederick. Personal Recollections of Andrew Carnegie. New York: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1920.

Malone, Cheryl Knott. “Accommodating Access: ‘Colored’ Carnegie Libraries, 1905-1925.” PhD diss., The University of Texas at Austin, 1996.

Mickelson, Peter. “American Society and the Public Library in the Thought of Andrew Carnegie,” The Journal of Library History, 10 No. 2 (April 1975): 117-138.

Moore, Bennie Lee. “A History of Public Library Service to Negros in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, 1927-1951.” Master’s Thesis, Atlanta University, 1961.

Myrdal, Gunner. An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy. New, London: Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1944.

Nasaw, David. Andrew Carnegie. New York: The Penguin Press, 2006.

O’Donnell, Suzanna W. “Equal Opportunities for Both: Julius Rosenwald, Jim Crow and the Charleston Free Library’s Record of Service to Blacks, 1931 to 1960.” Master’s Thesis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2000.

Van Slyck, Abigail A. Free to All: Carnegie Libraries and American Culture 1890-1920. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995

Tillman, Rosebud Harris. “The History of Public Library Service to Negros in Little Rock, Arkansas, 1917-1951.” Master’s Thesis, Atlanta University, 1953.

Watson, Paula D. “Carnegie Ladies, Lady Carnegies: Women and the Building of Libraries.” Libraries and Culture, 31 no. 1 (Winter 1996): 156-96.

Work, Monroe N. Negro Year Book: An Annual Encyclopedia of the Negro 1921-1922. Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, 1922.

Civil Rights, Education and Libraries

Barker, Tommie Dora. Libraries of the South: A Report on Developments 1930-1935. Chicago: American Library Association, 1936.

Barker, Tommie Dora. “Library Progress in the South, 1936-42,” Library Quarterly, 12 (July 1942): 353-62.

Battles, David M. The History of Public Library Access for African Americans in the South. Lanham, MD: The Scarecrow Press, 2009.

Bobinski, George S. Libraries and Librarianship: Sixty Years of Challenge and Change, 1945-2005. Lanham, MD: The Scarecrow Press, 2007

Boles, John B. ed. A Companion to the American South. Hoboken, NJ: Blackwell Publishers, 2004.

Du Bois, W.E. Burghardt ed. Effort for the Social Betterment Among Negro Americans. Atlanta, GA: Atlanta University Press, 1909.

Bostwick, Arthur E. The American Public Library. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1910.

Cantor, George. Historic Landmarks of Black America. Detroit, MI: Gale Research, 1991.

Carmichael, James V., Jr. “Southern Librarianship and the Culture of Resentment.” Libraries and Culture, 40 no. 3 (Summer 2005): 324-52.

Cashman, Sean Dennis. African-Americans and the Quest for Civil Rights. 1900-1990. New York: New York University Press, 1991.

Chafe, William H., Raymond Gavins, and Robert Korstad eds. Remembering Jim Crow. New York: The New Press, 2014

Coleman, Brenda Weeks. “Keeping the Faith: The public Library’s Commitment to Adult Education, 1950-2006.” Phd diss., University of Southern Mississippi, 2008.

“Colored Libraries,” The Library Journal (July 1910): 343.

Cresswell, Stephen. “The Last Days of Jim Crow in Southern Libraries.” Libraries and Culture, no. 3 and 4 (Summer/Fall 1996): 557-73. Accessed May 10, 2016.

Curtis, Florence Rising. “Librarianship as a Field for Negros.” The Journal of Negro Education, no. 1 (January 1935): 94-8. Accessed May 10, 2016.

Cutter, Jamie L. “Getting by at the Benjamin Mays Black Branch: Library Access for African Americans in Jim Crow South Carolina, 1940-1971.” Master’s thesis, San Jose’ State University, 2011.

Davis, Donald G., Jr. and Wayne Wiegand eds. Encyclopedia of Library History. New York: Garland Publishing, 1994.

Digital Public Library of America. “A History of US Public Libraries.” Accessed April 26, 2016. http://dp/la/exhibits/shows/history-us-publiclibraries/segragated-libraries/services

Eduscapes. “History of Libraries.” Accessed March 12, 2015. http://eduscapes.com/history/contemporary/1910.htm

Ellis, Elizabeth G. “The Southeastern Black Academic Librarian.” The Black Librarian in the Southeast. Edited by Annette L. Phinazee. Durham, NC: North Carolina Central University, 1976.

Franklin, Hardy R. “The Black Public Librarian in the Southeast.” The Black Librarian in the Southeast. Edited by Annette L. Phinazee. Durham, NC: North Carolina Central University, 1976.

Fultz, Michael. “Black Libraries in the South in the Era of De Jure Segregation.” Libraries and the Culture Record, 41 no. 3 (Summer 2006): 337-59. Accessed May 10, 2016.

Graham, Toby Patterson. The Right to Read: Segregation and Civil Rights in Alabama’s Public Libraries, 1900-1965. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 2002.

Jackson, Sidney L. Libraries and Librarianship in the West: A Brief History. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1974.

Joeckel, Carleton B. and Amy Winslow. A National Plan for Public Library Service. Chicago: American Library Association, 1948.

Johnson-Houston, Debbie, Billie E. Walker, and Maurice Wheeler. “A Brief History of Library Service to African Americans.” American Libraries, no. 2 (February 2004): 42-5. Accessed October 5, 2016.

Jones, Theodore. Carnegie Libraries across America: A Public Legacy. New York: Preservation Press, 1997.

Knott, Cheryl. Not Free, Not for all: Public Libraries in the age of Jim Crow. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 2015.

Killacky, Jim. “Public Libraries and Adult Education: An Historical Review.” Research in Rural Education, 2 no. 3 (November 1983): 51-8.

King, Thomas Lawrence. “Support for Human Rights in Librarianship: The Legacy of E.J. Josey.” E.J. Josey: An Activist Librarian. Edited by Ismail Abdullahi. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1992.

Leatherman, Carolyn H. “Richmond Rejects a Library: The Carnegie Public Library Movement in Richmond, Virginia, in the Early Twentieth Century.” PhD diss., Virginia Commonwealth University, 1992.

Lee, Dan R. “Faith Cabin Libraries: A Study of an Alternative Library Service in the Segregated South, 1932-1960.” Libraries and Culture, no. 1 (Winter 1991): 169-82. Accessed January 26, 2016.

Lipscomb, C. E. “Race and Librarianship: Part I.” Journal of the Medical Library Association, no.3 (July 2004): 299–301.

Lipscomb, C. E. “Race and Librarianship: part II.” Journal of the Medical Library Association, no.3 (July 2004): 308–310.

Malone, Cheryl Knott. “Quiet Pioneers: Black Women Public Librarians in the Segregated South.” Vitae Scholasticae, 19 no. 1 (Spring 2000): 59-76.

Martin, Robert Sidney and Orvin Lee Shiflett. “Hampton, Fisk, and Atlanta: The Foundations, the American Library Association and Library Education for Blacks, 1925-1941.” Libraries and Culture, 31 no. 2 (Spring 1996): 299-325.

McHenry, Elizabeth. Forgotten Readers: Recovering the Lost History of African American Literary Societies. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2002.

McPheeters, Annie L. Library Service in Black and White: Some Personal Recollections, 1921-1980. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1988.

Du Mont, Rosemary Ruhig. “Race in American Librarianship: Attitudes of the Library Profession,” The Journal of Library History (1974-1987) 21 no.3 (Summer 1986): 488-509.

Musmann, Klaus. “The Ugly Side of Librarianship: Segregation in Library Services for 1900 to 1950.” Untold Stories: Civil Rights, and Black Librarianship. Edited by John Mark Tucker. Champaign, Il: University of Illinois, 1998.

Plotnix, Authur. “Library Life in the Deep South Part I: Flux and Conflux at the Delta,” Wilson Library Bulletin 47, (March 1973): 584-97.

Plotnix, Authur. “Library Life in the Deep South Part II: The heart of Dixie,” Wilson Library Bulletin 47, (May 1973): 779-89.

Richards, Pamela Spence. “Library Services and the African-American Intelligentsia before 1960,” Libraries and Culture, no. 1 (Winter 1998): 91-7. Accessed May 1, 2016.

Settle, George T. “Work with Negros Round Table.” Bulletin of the American Library Association, no. 4 (July 1923): 274-9. Accessed May 20, 2016.

Smith, Jessie Carney. “Black Women, Civil Rights, and Libraries.” Untold Stories: Civil Rights and Black Librarianship. Edited by John Mark Tucker. Champaign, Il: University of Illinois, 1998.

Sieg, Vera. The Negro Problem: A Bibliography. Madison, WI: Wisconsin Free Library Commission, 1908.

Totten, Herman L. “Southeastern Black Library Educators.” The Black Librarian in the Southeast. Edited by Annette L. Phinazee. Durham, NC: North Carolina Central University, 1976.

“Some Unusual Experiences in the Work of a Blind Librarian,” Library Journal (October 1907): 393-4.

Watson, Paula D. “Carnegie Ladies, Lady Carnegies: Women and the Building of Libraries,” Libraries and Culture, 31 no.1 (Winter 1996): 159-96.

“Work of the Marblehead Library in the South,” The Library Journal (December 1910): 551.

Documentary Sources, Part 2: By State

Mississippi

Austin, Curtis J. “On Violence and Nonviolence: The Civil Rights Movement in Mississippi.” Mississippi History Now. Accessed August 31, 2016. http://mshistory.k12.ms.us/articles/62/the-civil-rights-movement-on-violence-and-nonviolence-the-civil-rights-movement-in-mississippi.

Bettersworth, John K. “The Reawakening of Society and Cultural Life, 1865-1890.” In A History of Mississippi, Vol. 1., edited by Richard Aubrey McLemore, 622-39. Jackson, MS: University and College of Mississippi, 1973.

Bond, Bradley G. Mississippi: A Documentary History. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2003.

Branton, Anna and Jama Lumumba. “Historical Survey of Library Services for Blacks in Mississippi: 1866-1954.” Mississippi Libraries, no. 2 (Summer 2002): 37-40.

Buchanan, William Emory. “The Yazoo Library Association’s Significance in History: The American Social and Public Library Movement in the South.” PhD diss., University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 1992.

Bureau of Public Administration. People Without Books: An Analysis of Library Services in Mississippi. University, MS: University of Mississippi, 1950.

Cook, Karen. “Struggles Within: Lura G. Currier, the Mississippi Library Commission, and Library Services to African Americans.” Information and Culture, no. 1 (2013): 134-56.

Davis, Whitman. The Library Situation in Mississippi. Starkville, MS: Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College, 1916.

Dwight, Margaret L. and George A. Sewell. Mississippi Black History Makers. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2009.

Evens, Charles. “Better Library Service for Mississippi: A Study Carries out for the Long-range Program Committee of the Mississippi Library Commission, and the Mississippi Library Association.” Master’s thesis, University of Mississippi, 1975.

Federal Writers’ Project of the Works Progress Administration. Mississippi: The WPA Guide to the Magnolia State. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 1988.

Fenton, Michele T. Little Known Black Librarian Facts. 4th ed. Indianapolis, IN: Little Known Black Librarian Facts, 2013.

Griffis, Matthew. “Searching for Carnegie: A Visit to the World’s Oldest Carnegie Library Calls to Mind a Chapter of Mississippi’s Library History.” Mississippi Libraries, no. 1 (Spring 2015).

Halsell, Willie D. “Eleven Libraries in Ten Communities in Eight Years.” Mississippi Library News, vol. 36 (December 1972): 212-15.

Harrison, Alferdteen B. Piney Woods School: An Oral History. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 1982.

Howell, J. B. and Margarete Peebles eds. A History of Mississippi Libraries. Montgomery, AL: Paragon Press, 1975.

Humphrey, Gerome Duke. “Public Education for Whites in Mississippi.” The Journal of Mississippi History, no. 1 (January 1941): 26-38.

Krause, Bonnie J. “The Jeanes Supervisor: Agent of Change in Mississippi’s African American Education.” The Journal of Mississippi History, no.2 (Summer2003): 127-45.

McAllister, Dorothy. “Library Service to the Colored Race.” Mississippi Library News, 17.2 (1953): 112-3.

McLemore, Richard Aubrey. A History of Mississippi. Vol. 2. Jackson, MS: University and College of Mississippi, 1973.

McMillen, Neil R. Dark Journey: Black Mississippians In the Age of Jim Crow. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1989.

Meltzer, Milton ed. In Their Own Words: A History of the American Negro, 1916-1966. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1966.

Mississippi History Now. “Mississippi Historical Society.” Accessed August 31, 2016. http://mshistorynow.mdah.state.ms.us/mississippi-historical-society/18/

Rhodes, Lelia G. “‘See How They Ran’: Black Librarians in Mississippi.” In The Black Librarian in the Southeast: Reminiscences, Activities, Challenges, edited by Annette L. Phinazee, 53-71. Durham, NC: North Carolina Central University, 1976.

Rice, Nannie H. “Libraries in Mississippi.” Library Journal, (October 1925): 848-50.

Richardson, Augusta B. ed. Libraries in Mississippi: A Report of a Survey of the Library Facilities, 1946-1947. Ann Arbor, MI: Edwards Brothers, 1949.

Wharton, Vernon Lane. The Negro in Mississippi, 1865-1890. New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1965.

Documentary Sources, Part 3: By Library

Atlanta

“Access to Accessible Archives.” Accessible Archives. Accessed April 26, 2016. http://www.accessible-archives.com/subscribe/.

Adkins, Barbra Mamie. “A History of Public Library Service to Negros in Atlanta, Georgia.” Master’s thesis, Atlanta University, 1951.

“Agnes Scott Girl Wins Index Prize for Best Sonnet.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, May 29, 1922.

“Andrew Carnegie Gives $30,000 for Libraries.” Atlanta Journal: Atlanta GA, December 2, 1906.

“Annie L. McPheeters (1908-1994).” New Georgia Encyclopedia. Accessed April 27, 2016. http://www.georgiaencylopedia.org/articles/education/annie_l_mcpheeters_1908-1994.

“Another Branch of Carnegie Library is Guaranteed Atlanta.” Atlanta Journal: Atlanta GA, January 5, 1915.

“Archives Division Collection.” Auburn Research Library on African American Culture and History. Accessed April 26, 2016. http://www.afpls.org/aarlcollections.

“Bad Blalock.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, GA, October 28, 1880.

Bois, W.E.B. Du, The Souls of Black Folk. Reprint, London: Penguin Publishing, 1997.

“The Burned District.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, GA, January 22, 1882.

“The Carnegie Library.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, GA, December 30, 1916.

“A Colored Library.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, GA, July 2, 1879.

“Commissioners Call Meeting of the City Federation.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, June 20, 1919.

“Council Refers Library Offer.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, GA, December 6, 1904.

Digital Public Library of America. “A History of US Public Libraries Case Study: Atlanta.” Accessed April 26, 2016 http://dp.la/exhiibitons/exhibits/show/history-us-public-libraries/segregated-libraries/case-sudy-atlanta.

Digital Public Library of America. “A History of US Public Libraries Segregated Libraries.” Accessed April 26, 2016 http://dp.la/exhiibitons/exhibits/show/history-us-public-libraries/segregated-libraries.

Dorsey, James Edward. “The Financing of Public Library Service in Georgia, 1897-1980.” PhD diss., University of Georgia, 1986.

“At East End.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, June 20, 1919.

“Educational Committee Outlines Special Work.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, June 24, 1923.

“Extraordinary Expenditures from Current Revenue in 1920.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, GA, January 2, 1921.

“Fifth District Club Women Hole Session in Atlanta.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, September 15, 1920.

“Fifth District Meeting Has Interesting Program.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, May 22, 1921.

“Funeral Notices.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, April 6, 1919.

“Georgia Campaign Committee Named for War Work Drive.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, GA, October 29, 1918.

Harris, Rachel D. “The Advantages of Colored Branch Libraries.” The Southern Workman. Vol. 44 Hampton, VA: Hampton Institute, 1916.

Handbook of the Libraries of the State of Georgia. Bulletin. Atlanta, GA: The Carnegie Library of Atlanta.

Hinton, Fanny D. “Buildings and Equipment.” Library Journal 74, no. 13 (August 1949): 1116- 1120

“Interesting Library Exhibit Planned for Southeastern Fair.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, August 19, 1917.

Jamison, Alma Hill. “Development of the Library in Atlanta.” Atlanta Historical Bulletin 4, no. 17 (April 1939): 96-111.

“A Just Claim.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, GA, February 26, 1917.

Jones, Theodore. “Andrew Carnegie: Private Fortune and Public Life.” In Carnegie Libraries Across America: A Public Legacy. Preservation Press; New York, 1997.

“Just from Georgia.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, GA, February 13, 1899.

“Libraries in Georgia.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, December 18, 1921.

“Librarians Plan Work in Camps at Meeting Here.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, February 15, 1919.

Mason, Herman “Skip”, Jr. Black Atlanta in the Roaring Twenties. Mount Pleasant, SC: Arcadia, 1997.

Mason, Herman “Skip”, Jr. Politics, Civil Rights, and Law in Black Atlanta, 1870-1970. Mount Pleasant, SC: Arcadia, 2000.

McPheeters, Annie L. Watters. “Atlanta Branch Aids Negro Groups.” Library Journal (March 1949).

McPheeters, Annie L. Library Service in Black and White: Some Personal Recollections, 1921-1980. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1988.

“Meetings.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, June 20, 1919.

“Monday is Needed to Help Maintain Colored Library.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, GA, August 19, 1920.

“Negro Congregationalists Hold Annual Convention Here, Beginning Today.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, GA, November 15, 1916.

“Mrs. Obear Makes Report on Public Welfare.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, GA, September 24, 1922.

“Officers Re-elected Saturday by Uncle Remus Association.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, February 4, 1917.

“The Passing Throng.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, GA, November 30, 1904.

“Soldiers to Have Plenty of Books.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, June 28, 1917.

“Southern College Woman Ready to Open New Club Rooms on Monday Afternoon.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, February 16, 1919.

“Special Lectures.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, April 16, 1922.

Texas Digital Library. “W.E.B. DuBois.” Accessed May 10, 2016 http://tdl.org/txlor-dspace/bitstream/handle/2249.3/213/10_web_dubois.htm?sequence=7.

“Miss Tommie Dora Barker.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, June 28, 1919.

“Miss Tommie Dora Barker.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, July 24, 1919

“Two Splendid Acts to be Presented at Auditorium.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, February 16, 1919

“Urban League Aiding at Colored Library.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, August 21, 1920.

“Urban League Weekly Bulletin.” “Extraordinary Expenditures from Current Revenue in 1920.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, GA, July 10, 1921.

“Wedding Today of Mrs. Sneed and Mr. Bluett Lee of Chicago.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, GA, July 20, 1915.

“Work Begins, Soon on New Library for the Negroes.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, GA, February 23, 1920.

“Young Men’s Library: Exciting Early Days.” Atlanta Constitution: Atlanta, GA, February 13, 1899.

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